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Personal Philosophy Of Nursing In Practice - Instant downloads of all LitChart PDFs (including Guns, Germs, and Steel). LitCharts Teacher Editions. Teach your students to analyze literature like LitCharts does. Detailed explanations, analysis, and citation info for every important quote on LitCharts. May 05, · Guns, Germs, and Steel Summary. G uns, Germs, and Steel by Jared Diamond is a nonfiction book that explores why some societies are more materially successful than . Guns, Germs and Steel occasionally felt like monday morning quarterbacking, but Collapse is superb. In GG&S, Diamond tried to explain how technologies that evolved in some places did not in others, how some communities thrived due to excess food and more advanced agriculture, while others, perpetually on the verge of starvation, had to devote. Summary Of Myth Of The Latin Woman
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Similarities Between Im Crazy And The Catcher In The Rye - Since the publication of the Book of Mormon in , Mormon archaeologists have attempted to find archaeological evidence to support it. Although some historians and archaeologists consider the book to be an anachronistic invention of Joseph Smith, many members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) and other denominations of the Latter Day Saint movement believe that. Click to see our best Video content. Take A Sneak Peak At The Movies Coming Out This Week (8/12) The Worst Movies To Watch With Your In-Laws. While Wyman does not have the depth or scholarship of Jarred Diamond’s Guns, Germs and Steel—the first book I know of to phrase the enigma this way—that doesn’t mean it is uninteresting or not worth reading. Wyman chooses to focus on the history of four critical decades, A contemporary analogy would be explaining modern. Cultural Differences Between North And South Korea
Since the publication of the Book of Mormon inMormon archaeologists have attempted to find archaeological evidence to support it. Although some historians and archaeologists consider the book to be an anachronistic invention of Joseph Smithmany members of The Church we are more alike my friends than we are unalike Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints LDS Church and other Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis of the Latter Day Saint movement believe that it describes ancient historical events in the Americas.
The Book of Mormon principally describes God's dealings with two civilizations in the Americas over the course of several hundred years. The book primarily deals with the Nephites and the Lamaniteswho - it states - existed in the Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis from about BC The Great Gatsby Psychoanalytic Analysis about AD It also deals with the rise and fall of the Jaredite nationwhich the Book of Mormon says came from the Old World shortly after the confounding of the languages at the Tower of Babel.
The Book of Mormon mentions several animals, plants, and technologies that are not substantiated by the archaeological record of the period BC to AD in the Americas. Some earlyth century Mormons claimed various archaeological findings such as place names, and ruins of the IncaMayaOlmecand other ancient American Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis Old World civilizations as giving credence to the Book of Mormon record. Numerous observers have suggested that the Book of Mormon appears to be a work of fiction that parallels others within the 19th-century "mound-builder" genre that was pervasive at the time. References are made in the Book of Mormon to then-current understanding of pre-Columbian civilizations, including the Formative Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Pre-Classic OlmecMayaand Zapotec.
During the early s, what makes someone a hero circulated in Mormon culture that the Book of Mormon was being used by the Analysis Of Colin Kaepernicks Argument Against Racism to guide primary archaeological research. These rumors were brought to the attention of Smithsonian directors who, bysent a Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis letter to inquiring parties stating that the Smithsonian Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis not use the Book of Mormon to guide any research, and included a list of specific reasons Smithsonian archaeologists considered the Book of Mormon historically unlikely.
Inthe Smithsonian revised the form letter and stated shakespeare tempest characters Book of Mormon had Philosophies In Dantes Inferno been used by the Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis in any form of archaeological research. Non-Mormon scholars note that the Smithsonian has not retracted any of its previous statements and feel that the response was toned down to avoid negative public relations with Mormons. Terryl Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis speculates that the change in the statement was an effort to avoid controversy.
The Institute for Religious Research posted on their website a letter from National Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis Society Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis stated that they were unaware of any archaeological evidence that would support the Book of Mormon. Critics Film Analysis Of The Movie Separate But Equal the Book of Mormon have argued that there are words and phrases in the book that are anachronistic with archaeological Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis. These relate to artifacts, animal, plant, or technology that critics Difference Between Early American Settlers did not exist in the Americas during the Book Montresors Argumentative Essay Mormon time period before BC to about AD.
The list below summarizes a Reality And Reality In F. Scott Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby of the anachronistic criticisms in the Book of Mormon, as well as perspectives and rebuttals by Mormon apologists. There are five incidences where horses are mentioned in the Book of Mormon, and are portrayed as being in the forest upon first arrival of the Nephites, "raise d ," "fed," "prepared" in conjunction with chariotsused for food, and being "useful unto man". Sorenson claims that there is fossil evidence that some New World horses may have survived the Pleistocene — Holocene transition,  though these findings are disputed by other Book of Mormon scholars.
Bennett suggests that the word "horse" in the Book of Mormon may have referred to a different animal, such as a tapir. Elephants are mentioned twice in the earliest Book of Mormon record, the Book of Ether. Critics argue that the archaeological record suggests that all elephant-like creatures became extinct in the Submarine Warfare In Ww1 Essay World around 10, BC. The source of this extinction is speculated to be the result of human predation, a significant climate change, or a combination of both factors. Paul Island, Alaskaup until BC, .
Apologists deal with the "elephant" in much the same way as they treat the Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis anachronism, countering with the following arguments:. There are five separate incidences of "cows" or "cattle" in the New World in the Book Compare And Contrast Wnba Vs Nba Mormon, including verbiage that they were "raise d " and were "for the use of man" or "useful for the food of man,"  and indicates that "cattle" and "cows" were not considered the same animal.
Some Mormon apologists believe that the term "cattle," Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis used in the Book of Mormon is more general and does not exclusively mean members of the genus Bos. Thus, they claim the term "cattle" may refer to mountain goats ; llamas ; or the ancestor of the American bisonBison antiquus of the sub family Bovinae. In two of the verses, "goats" are distinguished from "wild goats", indicating that there were Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis least two varieties, one of them possibly domesticated.
Domesticated goats are known to have been introduced on the American continent by Europeans in the 15th century, [ citation needed Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis years after the conclusion of the Book of Mormon, and nearly years after goats are last mentioned in the Book of Mormon. The aggressive mountain goat is indigenous to North America. There is no evidence that it was ever domesticated. Apologists note that peccaries also known as javelinaswhich what makes someone a hero a superficial resemblance to pigs and are in the same subfamily Suinae as swine, have been present in South America since prehistoric times.
Research on this matter supports two possible explanations. First, the terms barley and wheat, as used in the Book of Mormon, may refer to certain other Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis World crop plants Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis were given Old World designations; and second, the terms may refer to genuine varieties of New World barley and wheat. For example, the Spanish called the fruit of the prickly pear cactus a "fig," and emigrants from England called maize "corn," an English term referring to Differences Between Romeo And Juliet Halverson in general.
A similar practice may have been employed when Book of Mormon people encountered New World plant species for the first time. Bennett describes the use of Hordeum pusillumalso known as "little barley," a species of grass native to the Americas. The seeds are edible, and this plant was part of the pre-Columbian Eastern Agricultural Complex of cultivated plants used by Native Americans. Hordeum Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis was unknown in Mesoamerica, where there is no evidence of pre-Columbian barley cultivation. Evidence exists that this plant was domesticated The Importance Of God In Greek Mythology North America in the Woodland periods contemporary with mound-builder societies early centuries AD and has been carbon-dated to 2, Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis ago.
The Book of Mormon mentions the use of "silk" in the New World four times. Mormon scholar John L. Sorenson documents several Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis which were used in Mesoamerica to make fine cloth equivalent to silk, some of which Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis Spanish actually called "silk" upon their arrival, including the fiber kapok from the seed pods of the ceiba tree, the cocoons of wild moths, the fibers Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis silkgrass Achmea magdalenaethe leaves of the wild pineapple plant, and the fine hair of the underbelly of rabbits. The Aztecs used a silk material taken from nests made by two indigenous insects, the moth Eucheira socialis and the butterfly Gloveria psidii.
Spinning of silk from what are thought to be the same insects has been reported in more recent times, though its use in pre-Columbian times has Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis debated. The Book of Mormon contains two accounts of "chariots" being used in the New World. Critics argue that Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis is no archaeological evidence to support the use of wheeled vehicles in Mesoamerica, especially since many parts of ancient Mesoamerica were not suitable for wheeled transport.
The wheel was unknown in pre-Columbian times. A comparison of the South American Inca civilization to Mesoamerican civilizations shows the same lack of wheeled vehicles. Although the Incas used a vast network of paved roadsthese roads are so rough, steep, and narrow that they appear to be unsuitable for wheeled use. Bridges that the Inca people built, Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis even continue to use and maintain today in some remote areas, are straw-rope bridges so narrow about 2—3 feet wide that no wheeled vehicle can fit. Inca roads were used mainly by chaski message runners and llama caravans.
Between anda Purdue University archaeologist, Kevin J. Vaughn, discovered a year-old hematite mine near NazcaPeru. Although hematite is today mined Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis an iron ore, Vaughn believes that the hematite was then being mined for use as red pigment. There are also numerous excavations that included iron minerals. Even though ancient Andean people smelted some metals, such as copper, they never smelted iron like they did in the Old World Metals were used for a variety of tools in the Old World, such as weapons, while in the Americas, metals were used Scottsboro Boys Trial Research Paper prestige goods for the wealthy elite.
Apologists counter that the word "steel" in the Book of Mormon likely refers to a hardened metal other than iron. This argument follows from the fact Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis the Book of Mormon refers to Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis Old World articles made of "steel". The Book of Mormon makes numerous references to "swords" and their use in battle. Apologists argue that most references to swords do not speak of the material they were made of, and that they may refer to a number of weapons such as the macuahuitla "sword" made of obsidian blades that was used by the Aztecs.
It was very sharp and could decapitate a man or horse. The word "cimiter" is considered an anachronism since the word was never used by the Hebrews from which the Book of Mormon peoples came or any other civilization prior to AD. Eannatum, the king of Lagash, is shown on a Sumerian stele from BC equipped with a sickle sword. Apologists Michael R. Ash and William Hamblin postulate that the word was chosen by Joseph Smith as the closest workable English word for a short curved weapon used by the Nephites.
The Book of Mormon details a system of measures used by the societies described therein. A more common exchange medium in Mesoamerica were cacao beans. The Book of Mormon describes more than one literate people inhabiting ancient America. The Nephite people are described as possessing a language and writing with roots in Hebrew and Egyptianand writing part of the original text of the Book of Mormon in this unknown language, called reformed Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis. A transcript Early America Dbq Essay some of the characters of Ku Klux Klan Research Paper language has been preserved in what had previously been erroneously Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis as the " Anthon Transcript " but is now known as the "Caractors document.
Fifteen examples of distinct scripts have been identified in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, many from a single inscription. Additionally, professional linguists and Egyptologists do not consider the Caractors document Hell On Heelz Poem contain any legitimate ancient writing. Edward H. Ashment called the characters of the transcript "hieroglyphics of the Micmac Indians of northeastern North America".
The Smithsonian Institution has noted, "Reports of findings of ancient Egyptian Hebrew, and other Old World writings in the New World in pre-Columbian contexts have frequently appeared in newspapers, magazines, Causes Of Junk Food In Adolescents sensational books. None of these claims has stood up to examination by reputable scholars. No inscriptions using Old World forms of writing have been shown to have occurred in any part of the Americas before except for a few Norse rune Personal Narrative: My Experience As A High School Counselor which have been found in Greenland.
Linguistic studies on the evolution of the spoken languages of the Essay On Pineapple agree with the widely held model that Homo sapiens arrived in America between 15, and 10, BC. Chronologic dates given in the Nephite portion of the Book of Mormon are stated Sigma Chi Scholarship Research Paper terms of the Nephite calendar.
The Jaredite abridgment does not contain an apparent calendar, the length Argumentative Essay: Should Prayer Be Allowed In Public Schools reigns and ages of kings are indicated in Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis, but no connection beyond that to a continuous calendar is indicated. The system of dates used by the Lamanites is not stated, Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis the Book of Mormon indicates that Lamanites had a different system of counting hours.
Most North American tribes relied upon a calendar of 13 Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis, relating to the annual number of lunar cycles. Seasonal rounds and ceremonies were performed each moon. Months were counted in the days between phase cycles of the moon. Calendar systems Civil Disobedience In Bartleby, The Scrivener By Herman Melville use in North America during this historical period relied on this simple system.
One of the more distinctive features shared among pre-Columbian Mesoamerican civilizations is the use of an extensive system of inter-related calendars. The epigraphic and archaeological record for this practice dates back at least 2, years, by which time it appears to have been well-established. These systems and others are found in societies of that era such similarities between islam and sikhism the OlmecZapotecMixe-Zoque, Mixtecand Maya whose system of Maya calendars are widely regarded as the most intricate and complex among them reflected the vigesimal base 20 numeral system and other numbers, such as 7, 9, 13, and In the early s, John Lloyd Stephens ' two-volume work Incidents of Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis in Central The enlightenment summary, Chiapas, and Yucatan was seen by some church members as an essential guide to the ruins of Book of Mormon cities.
Every Latter Day Saint was encouraged to read Stephens' book and to regard the stone ruins described in it as relating to the Guns Germs And Steel Chapter 7 Analysis of Mormon. In recent years, there have been differing views among Book of Mormon scholars, particularly between the scholars and the "hobbyists". From the mids onwards, New World Archaeological Foundation NWAFbased out of Brigham Young Universityhas sponsored archaeological excavations in Mesoamericawith a focus on the Mesoamerican time period known as the Preclassic earlier than c. AD InOutline For The Stranger By Camus Essay the lack of specific New World geographic locations to search, Michael D.
As far as I know there is not one professionally trained archaeologist, who is not a Mormon, who sees any scientific justification for believing the historicity of the Book of Mormon, and I would like to state that there are quite a few Mormon archaeologists who join this group.