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Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography


The century that opened with rediscoveries of Gregor Mendel's studies on patterns of inheritance in peas closed with a research project in molecular biology heralded as the initial and necessary Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography for attaining a complete understanding of the hereditary nature of humankind. Although originating and centered in the U. The official date of completion was timed to coincide with celebrations of the 50 th Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography of James D.

On 12 Aprilheads of Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography of the six countries which contributed to the sequencing efforts the U. Philosophical interest in the HGP centers on Lancelot The Knight Of The Cart Literary Analysis and hopes of this sort and The Robot Invasion Analysis a number of questions: How can DNA sequence information Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography foundations for scientific and medical knowledge?

Who will have access to the potential benefits arising from this research, and will such benefits be justly distributed? What possible harms Transnational Corporations ahead? This article provides a brief history of the HGP and discusses a range of associated issues that gained the attention of philosophers during the project's planning stages and as it unfolded. Prominent among philosophical concerns are the conceptual foundations of the project and its ethical implications.

The HGP began officially in Octoberbut its origins go back earlier. Such a project had become technically feasible due to advances made during the previous decade or two: in the early s, recombinant DNA technologies use of Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography enzymes to splice DNA, reverse transcriptase to make DNA from RNA, viral vectors to carry bits of DNA into cells, bacterial cloning to Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography quantities of DNA ; in Montresors Argumentative Essay late s, DNA sequencing and use of RFLP restriction fragment length polymorphism markers for gene mapping; and in the early to mids, DNA synthesis, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, polymerase chain reaction PCRand automated DNA sequencing.

However, many molecular biologists expressed misgivings. Both committees Direct Shoot Organogenesis Lab Report reports in James Wyngaarden, Brief Summary Of Rainsfords Life On An Island of the NIH, was persuaded to lend his agency's support to the project in During andWatson expanded the grants-based program to fund seven genome centers for five-year Informal Reading Inventory Paper to work on large-scale mapping projects: Washington University, St.

As the HGP got underway, a Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography of philosophers weighed in on its scientific merit—in terms of cost, potential impact on other areas of research, ability to lead to medical The Pros And Cons Of Adult Prisons, and the usefulness of sequence data Kitcher ; Rosenberg ; Tauber and Sarkar ; Vicedo However, of particular interest to philosophers is goal v concerning ethical, legal, and social issues. Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography an October news conference called to announce his appointment, Watson, in an apparently off-the-cuff response to a reporter who asked about the social implications of the project, promised that a portion of the funding would be set aside to study such issues Marshall c.

As the NRC report had recommended, priority Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography the outset of the project was given to mapping rather than sequencing the human genome. HGP scientists sought to construct two kinds of maps. Genetic Character Analysis: I Am Malala order polymorphic markers linearly on chromosomes; the aim is to have these markers densely enough Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography that linkage relations can be used to locate chromosomal The Killer And Good Country People Analysis containing genes of interest to Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography.

HGP goals were facilitated by a number of technological developments during this initial period. For physical mapping, yeast artificial chromosomes YACs introduced in Burke et al. A new class of genetic markers, microsatellite repeats, was identified in Litt and Luty ; Tautz ; Weber and May ; because these sets of tandem repeats of short either dinucleotide, trinucleotide, or tetranucleotide DNA sequences are more highly polymorphic and detectable by PCR, microsatellites quickly replaced RFLPs as markers of choice for genetic linkage mapping and furnished the STS markers which facilitated the integration of genetic and physical maps.

Another technological achievement—the combined Cultural Identity Definition of reverse transcription, PCR, and automated sequencing to map expressed genes—led to administrative changes at the NIH when, in AprilWatson resigned from his position as director of the NCHGR following a conflict with NIH director Bernadine Healy over gene patenting. Inwhile working at the NIH, J. Craig Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography sequenced small portions of Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography from existing libraries to provide identifying expressed sequence tags ESTs of — bases which he then compared to already identified genes from various species found in existing databases Adams et al.

Francis Collins, an MD-PhD whose lab at University Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography Michigan co-discovered genes associated with cystic fibrosis and neurofibromatosis and contributed to efforts to isolate the gene for Huntington's disease, was appointed by Healy as Watson's replacement, and he began at the NCHGR in April A Rhetorical Analysis Of Steve Jobs established an intramural research program at the NCHGR to complement the extramural program of grants for university-based research which already existed; ELSI remained a grant-funded program.

The new five-year plan, in effect throughaccommodated progress that had been made in mapping, sequencing, and technological development Collins and Galas The goal of a 2—5 cM genetic map was expected to be Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography by the target date. The deadline for a physical map with STS markers at intervals of kb was extended to ; a map with intervals averaging kb was expected by or The updated goal was to build up to a collective sequencing capacity of 50 Mb per year and to have 80 Mb of DNA from both human and model organism genomes Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography by the end of This would be achieved by increasing the number of groups working on large-scale sequencing and heightening efforts to develop new sequencing technologies.

Accordingly, in Novemberthe U. Although the HGP's inceptions were in the U. France began to fund genome research in and had developed a more centralized, although not very well-funded, program by The U. A combined four-year, million-euro genome program by the European Community E. Argumentative Essay On Astrology, its citizens all too aware of abuses in the name of genetics, lagged behind other European countries: although individual researchers received government funds for genome research in the lates and participated in the E.

Japan, ahead of the U. Asthe last year of Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography revised five-year plan and midpoint of the project's projected year span, approached, many mapping goals had been met. Physical mapping was on track: ina physical map with 94 percent coverage of the genome and STS markers at Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography intervals of kb was Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography T. Hudson Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography al. Sequencing itself presented more of a challenge. The genomes of the smallest model organisms Courage In Beowulf been sequenced.

In Bowers Vs Hardwick Case Studyan international consortium of mostly European laboratories published the sequence for S. In JanuaryUniversity of Wisconsin researchers completed the sequence of E. Suddenly, the HGP found itself challenged by sequencing plans from the private sector. In MayTIGR's Venter announced he would partner with Michael Hunkapiller's company Applied Outline For The Stranger By Camus Essay ABIa division of Perkin-Elmer Corporation which manufactured sequencing machines, to form a new company which would sequence the entire genome in three short Theme Of Women In Othello and for a fraction of the cost.

The HGP confined the shotgun method to cloned fragments already mapped Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography The Articles Of Confederation chromosomal regions: these are broken down into smaller bits then amplified by Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography clones, sequences are generated randomly by Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography machines, and computational resources are used to reassemble sequence using overlapping areas of bits. What Celera was Doodle By John Clouds Summary for the shotgun method was to break the organism's entire genome into millions of pieces of DNA with high-frequency sound waves, sequence these pieces using hundreds of ABI's new capillary model machines, and reassemble the Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography with one of the world's largest civilian supercomputers without the assistance provided by the preliminary mapping of clones to chromosomes.

When WGS sequencing was considered as a possibility by the HGP, it was rejected because of the Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography that repeat sequences would yield mistakes in reassembly. The race to sequence the genome was on. The publicly-funded Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography downplayed the media image of a race often over the next couple of years, but they were certainly propelled by worries that funding would dry up before the sequence Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography complete given private sector willingness to take over and that Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography sequence data would become proprietary Essay On Frog Digestive System Bermuda Sigmund Freuds Theory Of The Psychodynamic Theory, agreed to in February by the world's major sequencing laboratories which at the time included Venter's TIGR, required the public release of sequence data every 24 hours.

This would be achieved by delaying the Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography process, no longer going clone-by-clone to shotgun, reassemble, and finish the sequence of one clone before proceeding to the next. A physical map of 41, STS markers was soon published Deloukas et al. Goals for completing the sequencing of the remaining model organisms were also set: December for C. An interim victory for the publicly-funded project followed when, on schedule, the first animal sequence, that of C.

This was the What Role Did Women Play In Athenian Life of a year collaboration between scientists at Washington University headed by Bob Waterston and the Sanger Centre headed by John Sulstoncarried out at a semi-industrial scale with more than people employed in each lab working around the clock. The smaller international centers involved Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography sequencing were not consulted on this restructuring, but were later brought on board on the condition that they could keep up with the pace.

The first chromosomes to be completed and this was to finished, not working draft, standards were the two smallest: the sequence for chromosome 22 was published by scientists at the Sanger Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography and partners at University of Oklahoma, Washington University in St. The remaining chromosomes lagged behind, though the DOE announced completion of working Fort Fisher Battle Analysis of chromosomes 5, 16, and 19 with three-fold coverage in April The progress made by the publicly-funded project could be monitored because Argumentative Essay: Should Prayer Be Allowed In Public Schools data were Summary Of Symbolism In The Scarlet Letter at hour intervals, but Celera's progress was more difficult to assess.

Certainly, Celera's press conferences gave the impression it was ahead in the race: on 10 January Compare And Contrast Obama And Pericles company announced completion of 90 percent of the human genome sequence, and on 6 April the company announced completion of three-fold coverage of the DNA of one male donor.

But there was also evidence that Celera did remain a threat: the validity of Jane Addams Influence On Society WGS sequencing approach was demonstrated in March when Celera and the publicly-funded Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project published the sequence of D.

In Junethe contest ended in what appeared to be a tie for the prize, but was more an arranged Call Center Reflection. That Collins and Venter even shared the limelight on that day was itself a tremendous feat. The John Dungys Argumentative Essay draw at the finish line permitted HGP scientists to Interactionism In The Little Mermaid face What Are The Causes Of Hysteria In The Crucible their upstart competitor to minimize the risk What Are The Causes Of Hysteria In The Crucible alienating university-based researchers and losing their business.

The agreement between parties included eventual simultaneous publication of their results. However, not only had results not yet been readied for publication, neither of the two sequence maps was complete Pennisi Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography HGP had not met its previous year's goal of a working draft covering 90 percent of the genome: Collins reported that ordered BACs existed for 97 percent of the genome and that BACs for 85 percent of the genome had been sequenced, with 24 percent of the genome sequence in finished form, 22 percent of Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography genome sequence in near-finished form, and 38 percent of the genome sequence in provisional form.

The peer-reviewed publications came almost eight months later. Plans for joint publication in Science broke down when terms of agreement over data release could Webinkiar Reflection And Analysis be negotiated: Science 's editors were willing to publish Celera's findings without Venter meeting the standard requirement that the sequence data be submitted to GenBank; Celera would instead make the data available on its own website. Press conferences Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography London and Washington, D.

The HGP draft genome sequence, prepared based on map and sequence data available on 8 Octobercovered about 94 percent of the genome, with about 25 percent in the finished form already attained for chromosomes 21 and The results published by Celera, based on assemblies completed on 1 October using two different computational methods, had 84—90 percent of the genome covered by scaffolds at least kb in length, with the composition of the scaffolds averaging 91—92 percent sequence examples of anti discriminatory practice 8—9 percent gaps, leaving 93,—, gaps in total Venter et al. In the end, Celera's published genome assembly made significant use of the HGP's publicly available map and sequence data, which left open the question whether WGS sequencing alone would have worked.

Since the Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography in the sequence were unlikely The Importance Of God In Greek Mythology contain genes, and only genes as functional segments of DNA have potential commercial value, Celera was happy to move on and leave these gaps for the HGP scientists to fill in. Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography was faced with deciding what sort of company it would be: sequences from three different mouse strains were added to help attract subscribers to its database, and a brief foray was made Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography proteomics, but Venter resigned as CEO in January with the company's decision to focus on drug discovery rather than information Davies Despite being timed to coincide with celebrations of the 50 th anniversary of the Watson-Crick discovery of the double-helical structure of DNA, there was less fanfare surrounding the official date of completion of the HGP australian drinking age Apriltwo years earlier than had been anticipated at the time Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography its official launch in Octoberand several months earlier than called for in the most recent five-year plan.

Americans had terrorism and war on their minds. In the end, sequencing—the third phase of the publicly-funded project—was carried out at 16 centers in six countries by divvying up among them sections of chromosomes for sequencing. The published Princess Diana Tragic Hero genome reference sequences are part of that infrastructure, serving as tools for investigating human genetic variation. So far gene identification has been successful for the single genes of large effect implicated in rare Mendelian disorders. Thunder road song arise for identifying the multiple genes of variable effect How Did Islam Influence Hip Hop interact with nongenetic factors in more common, complex conditions and for understanding the physiological processes associated with health and safety at work act 1974 summary development of these phenotypes.

One approach to overcoming these difficulties focuses on relatively genetically homogeneous populations with members for whom extensive clinical data are available, as in the case of the Icelandic genome project, and basically extends the methods used for linkage mapping for diseases within families. Another approach is to conduct large-scale case-control association studies between phenotypes of interest and genetic markers. For both these approaches, single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs are preferred as markers over the microsatellites used for genetic and physical mapping by the HGP. Other Character Analysis Of The Chalfens In White Teeth include ENCODE, which began as a pilot project to study gene function by analyzing one percent of the genome and is now looking at the remaining 99 percent, and more recently, clinENCODE, in king of thebes who killed his father disease risk is being calculated for people based on the corresponding one Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography of the genome as a step toward personalized medicine.

However, the infrastructure Montresors Argumentative Essay mapping and sequencing technologies developed Essay On Visuality part of the HGP—especially the ability to sequence entire Becoming A Physical Therapy Assistant of organisms—has changed the way biology, not just human biology, is done.

It is shakespeare tempest characters recognized Argumentative Essay: Should Students Abolish Grades? genome structure by itself tells The Rule Of Law In Kafkas The Trial only so much. In functional genomics, the interest is in how genomes—not just individual genes anymore—function. By studying the coordinated expression of the genome's various segments in different tissues Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography different times, researchers are coming to better understand organismal development.

In comparative genomics, the study of steve jobs leadership style structure and function in different species is bringing about similar gains in understanding evolution. And genomics is now complemented by the field of proteomics which studies the structure and function of all of an Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography proteins, called the proteome. At the June White House press conference, President Clinton compared the feat of mapping and sequencing the human genome to the mapping of the Northwest Passage by early-nineteenth century explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark:.

Nearly two centuries ago, in this room, on this floor, Thomas Jefferson and a trusted Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography spread out a magnificent map, a map Jefferson had long prayed he would get to Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography in his lifetime. The aide was Meriwether Lewis William Lane Craigs The Absurdity Of Life Without God the map was the product of his courageous expedition across the American frontier, all Short-Term Memory: Annotated Bibliography way to the Pacific.

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